In 2002, there were 125 research centers in Mexico. Funding for science this year, including education, amounted to 0.41% of GDP. OK. 40% of investments in scientific research belong to the private sector, 60% – to the state. 25,000 people are employed in the scientific field of Mexico, of which 5,000 are in the private sector. The leading scientific organization is the National Council for Science and Technology. In the field of fundamental science, 579 scientific projects were implemented in 2002 (of which 163 were within the framework of physical and mathematical sciences and earth sciences, and 122 were in the field of biology and chemistry).
According to educationvv.com, the modern education system is defined by the General Law on Education 1993, according to which 9 years of education (6 years of elementary school and 3 years of basic education) are compulsory. Secondary education has two levels: the first, basic, has a duration of 1 to 4 years (depending on specialization), the second, “secondary-higher” (intermediate between a full secondary school and a university), has a duration of 3 years (rarely – 2) . After completing the second stage of secondary education, the graduate is awarded the title of bachelor, which gives the right to enter a university or other institution of higher education. After studying at a university for 4-5 years, a licentiate diploma is issued, after 6 years – a master’s degree.
In 2000, total spending on education was 4.5% of GDP. Primary education covers 14.8 million students, secondary education – 9.7 million people. (net coverage of this stage of education was 60%) The gross coverage of young people in higher education is at the level of 20.7%.
2.147 million students study at universities. Among state universities, the leading place is occupied by the National Autonomous University of Mexico City (current status since 1929, 270,000 students); the second largest in terms of enrollment is the State University of Guadalajara (founded in 1792, 214,000 students). A special place in the system of higher education in Mexico is occupied by such technical universities as the National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936, 107,000 students) and the private Technological Institute in the city of Monterrey (founded in 1943, 70,000 students). A feature of the higher education system in Mexico is the presence among private universities of foreign or international universities with a small (from 2 to 10 thousand people) number of students; these include: American International University, University of the Americas, Iberoamerican University,
In the pre-Columbian period, many cultures coexisted or replaced each other in Mexico, the earliest of which date back to the 20th century. BC.
From the beginning of the conquest and further colonization, the culture of Mexico developed in line with European styles and trends: in the 16th century. – 1st floor. 17th century Renaissance and Mannerist, in the 17-18 centuries. – baroque.
In the artistic culture of the 19th century. since the period of independence, two main trends have coexisted – classicism and romanticism. By the 1830s there was a national trend – the so-called. costumbrism (from the Spanish “el costumbre” – custom). 2nd floor 19th century marked by rapid processes in urban planning.
From the beginning 20th century Mexican culture experienced an upsurge in all areas. Literature in the 1920s the so-called the novel of the revolution, the founder of which was M. Azuelo. Appeared in the 1950s. the “new Latin American novel” is represented by the names of H.H. Arreola, J. Rulfo, C. Fuentes, A. Yanes, F. del Paso. A special philosophical and historical thought permeated the work of the 1990 Nobel Prize winner poet and essayist O. Paz.
In the 1920s Three directions developed in Mexican architecture – neocolonial style, neoclassicism (C. Obregon Santasilla), functionalism (J. Villagran Garcia, J. Legarreta, E. Yanes, J. O’Gorman). Organic architecture is reflected in the works of L. Barragan, K. Laso, K. Tarditi. Representatives of the architecture of the international style of the 1950-60s. were M. Pani and the Spaniard F. Candela.
The first works of the three leading masters of monumental painting – H.K. Orozco, D. Rivera, D.A. Siqueiros – belong to the 1920s. In 1937 the Folk Graphics Workshop was established. The work of R. Tamayo and two women artists, F. Kahlo and M. Izquierdo, is deeply individual. In the 1950s many artists turned to abstract art, from the 1960s. – to the so-called. new figurativeness.
Leading Mexican composers 1st floor. 20th century were S. Revueltas and K. Chavez. In the 1960s and 70s. developed the musical avant-garde.
The first short film in Mexico was filmed in 1898 by director S.T. Barragan. The glory of cinema in the 1940s directors E. Fernandez, J. Bracho, A. Galindo, cameraman G. Figueroa, actresses D. del Rio and M. Felix, actors P. Armendariz and C. Dominguez. A significant role in Mexican cinematography in the 1950s and 60s. played by the Spanish film director L. Bunuel. In the 1960s-90s. the leading film directors were A. Ripstein, F. Casals, P. Leduc, S. Olkhovich and others.
Since the 1980s in all areas of culture, the predominance of postmodernism became obvious (in painting – C. Maciel, in sculpture – Sebastian).