Persepolis, Iran

Deshte-Lut Desert

Desert Deshte-Lut, or simply Lut, as it is called in Iran, is translated from Persian as “emptiness”. This area is a large salt desert, located on the territory of the province of Sistan and Balochistan, as well as Kerman. Deshte Lut is included in the list of the largest deserts in the world, ranking 27th with an area of ​​52,000 km². Due to the exceptional dynamic geological processes, on July 17, 2016, the desert was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Persepolis

Persepolis– The ruins of the ancient city were discovered in the early 1930s, during excavations conducted by the French archaeologist André Godard. Godard in his study claims that the place for the construction of the city was chosen by Cyrus the Great, and Darius the Great began the construction of palaces and other buildings. Darius designed the construction of the Apadan Palace and Trypylon, the main imperial treasury. The construction of these structures was completed during the reign of his son Xerxes. Further construction of buildings continued until the fall of the Achaeminid dynasty. Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire during the reign of the Achaeminid dynasty. The ancient city is located 70 kilometers south of Shiraz, in the province of Fars, on the territory of modern Iran. In modern usage, the ancient settlement is called Takht Jamshid (throne of Jamshid) or Parsekh. The earliest ruins of Persepolis date back to around 515 BC. The ancient Persians called the city Parsa, which meant “the city of the Persians”. The modern scientific name – Persepolis – is the same, but only in Greek (Perse – Persia, polis – city). The city fortress in 1979 received the status of a world cultural heritage of UNESCO. The ruins of the ancient city were discovered in the early 1930s, during excavations conducted by the French archaeologist André Godard. Godard in his study claims that the place for the construction of the city was chosen by Cyrus the Great, and Darius the Great began the construction of palaces and other buildings. Darius designed the construction of the Apadan Palace and Trypylon, the main imperial treasury. The construction of these structures was completed during the reign of his son Xerxes. Further construction of buildings continued until the fall of the Achaeminid dynasty. Persepolian architecture is distinguished by the use of wooden columns – the architects used stone only in cases where the height of the gigantic cedars of Lebanon or teak trees from India was insufficient. However, the bases and tops of the columns always remained stone. All city buildings can be divided into three groups – military barracks, treasuries and ceremonial halls. There are several buildings resembling royal apartments. The mentioned structure includes the Great Staircase, Xerxes Gate, Apadakh Palace, Hall of a Hundred Columns, Tripylon, Tachar Palace, Xerxes Harem, Artaxerxes III Palace, Imperial Treasury and Royal Stables. The ancient settlement is located near the small Pulvar River, which flows into the Kur River. The total area of ​​the territory is 125,000 sq. meters. Partially, the elevation of the construction site was artificial, partly the territory was expanded by digging up the slope of Mount Kuh Rahmet (“mountain of mercy”). The hollows of the earth’s surface were covered with soil and large boulders, which were connected together with metal brackets. Around 518 BC construction began on a wide staircase, which was supposed to serve as the main entrance to the site with buildings, which towered 20 meters above the ground. The seven-meter-wide staircase consists of 111 steps. Initially, it was designed for important people to enter the city on horseback. The main building material in Persepolis was gray limestone. Sewer channels were made in the rocks and a huge reservoir for fresh water was hollowed out. For defensive purposes, towers were built on the three walls surrounding the city, and the walls themselves were equipped with ramparts. The walls, due to the threshold location of the main terrace, have different heights – one wall was 7 meters high, the second – 14, and the third, enveloping all four sides, had a height of 27 meters. By itself, the asymmetrical and angular layout of the city made it well protected.

Persepolis, Iran