Pakistan History

Beginning in 1947, with the division of India, the Pakistani territory was one of the centers of the Indus civilization until in 1500 BC it was destroyed by the Aryan invasions. Until the beginning of our era, the country suffered numerous invasions of different peoples and cultures that settled in the territory (the Persians, Alexander the Great, the Mauryan Empire, the Greco-Batrians, the Indo-Scythians, the Gupta, etc.). In the middle of the 6th century AD, the Hephtali Huns settled in the Indus Valley, and in the 7th century Muslims settled in Sindh. Ottoman expansion began in the 12th century. In the middle of the 16th century, the The Great Mongol Empire imposed an apparent unification, which ended in the mid- 19th century. The British, who had already dominated Bengal by 1795, annexed the Punjab and Sind regions to the British East India Company in 1849 and 1843, respectively.

In 1906, the All-Indian Muslim League, one of the most important nationalist movements in the country, was formed in Daka. Ali Yinna, head of the League, accepted the Act of 1935 that instituted self-government in each of the provinces of the peninsula. Since 1940, Yinna and the Muslim League supported the creation of the Islamic State of Pakistan.

According to Youremailverifier, independence was granted in 1947 following the partition of the peninsula into two states, India and Pakistan. And it was divided into two provinces (West Pakistan and East Pakistan), separated by more than 1,500 km of Indian territory. Some of the most important problems he faced were India’s claims to Kashmir and the separatist movement in East Pakistan, supported by India. The 26 of March of 1971 independence was proclaimed Bangladesh. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was elected President of Pakistan in 1972.

In 1977, before the elections were held, General Zia-Ul-Haque staged a military coup and suspended the Constitution. Zia-Ul-Haque ruled supported by the military and Islamic fundamentalism, through martial law. In 1988, after the death of Zia-Ul-Haque in a plane crash, Ghulam Ishak Khan succeeded him as president; after the November elections, he tasked Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Ali Bhutto, with forming a government. In 1990 Bhutto was removed from office, accused of influence peddling (some religious parties considered the presence of a woman in government incompatible with Islamic law). After three years of government of the Muslim League of Nawaz Sharif, B. Bhutto prevailed in the elections of October of 1993 and again occupied the head of the government. In November 1993, Farooq Leghari, the prime minister’s candidate, was elected the new president of Pakistan by the parliamentary college.

In February and March 1995, a wave of violence shook Karachi: 22 people died in attacks on mosques Shia and Sunni and two officials from the consulate of the United States were killed by Islamic fundamentalists. These acts were added to the confrontation between the Mohafir Movement, which groups Muslim emigres from India, and the police. In the 1997 elections the Muslim League of Nawaz Sharif obtained an absolute majority.

In 1999 there were armed clashes with India in Kashmir. This same year the Sharif government was ousted by the coup of General Pervez Musharraf, who became Prime Minister (Pakistan was suspended as a member of the Commonwealth). In June 2001 General Musharraf was sworn in as President of Pakistan (confirmed in referendum in 2002). Pakistan adopted a pro-US policy. in the interventions in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). In 2004 P. Musharraf was ratified at the head of state. That same year Pakistan and India began negotiations to end the conflict in Kashmir (the country was readmitted to the Commonwealth). After a long exile, B. Bhutto returned to the country in 2007 in the hope of a return to democracy, but at the end of that year she was assassinated during a public act of the Pakistan People’s Party. The government blamed the attack on the Taliban. In 2008 Musharraf was forced to resign and in the following elections Bhutto’s widower, Asif Ali Zardari, was elected president.

Assassination of Osama bin Laden

The 1 of maypole of 2011 a commando of elite navy seals made up of about 20 troops attacked the residence in which Bin Laden was hiding in the outskirts of Islamabad. According to some sources, the clue that led US intelligence to find the terrorist was provided under torture by Khalid Shikh Mohamed, one of the executors of the attacks of September 11, 2001, locked up in the Guantánamo naval base in Cuba. [1] .

According to Bin Laden’s 12-year-old daughter, he was captured alive and executed by US soldiers. His body was removed by the Americans. The Pakistani army, which entered the compound an hour after the US attack, along with four riddled corpses, found 16 people bound with plastic ties. After the operation, the US military flew to Afghanistan. They could not take away the terrorist leader’s relatives because they did not have enough seats on the aircraft after losing one of the helicopters in the assault.

Retaliation for his death

The 13 of maypole of 2011 two suicide bombers, members of the so – called Pakistani Taliban, provoked the least 80 dead and about 120 injured, many of them seriously, a paramilitary training center in Pakistan. [2] ” We have done this to avenge the incident in Abotabad,” Ahsanulá Ahsan, a spokesman for the Pakistani Taliban, told The Associated Press by telephone. He warned that the militia was planning attacks on Americans living in Pakistan.

It was the first major militia attack in Pakistan since bin Laden’s death on May 2.

Pakistan History